The grid is changing as the big, centralized providers of the past are replaced by smaller, distributed suppliers. Keeping such complex networks running stable requires high-resolution sensor technology – AI provides a way to make accurate predictions and automatically detect any disturbances or anomalies in real time. Here is how Fraunhofer researchers developed the compression techniques, algorithms and neural networks to make a power supply fit for the future. The way power is generated is in transition: Whereas, before, all our power came from big power plants, these days it comes from a range of distributed sources as well, including wind turbines, photovoltaic systems and other similar facilities. This shift has a big impact on our grid – with particular challenges for operators of transmission grids. How to monitor the proper functioning of grid parameters such as phase angle and frequencies? Might there be discrepancies or anomalies in the proper functioning of the grid? Or are there lines or power plants down? Today’s standard measurement technology is no longer able to reliably furnish answers to these sorts of questions. More and more operators are, therefore, turning to additional phasor measurement units (PMUs) and other digital solutions. These systems measure the amplitude and phase of current and voltage up to 50 times a second. This process generates huge volumes of data, easily several gigabytes a day. Data compression saves 80 percent of data In response, researchers at the Advanced System Technology (AST) branch of the Fraunhofer Institute for Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation IOSB in Ilmenau are looking for ways to optimize the data processing using artificial intelligence, with a view to improving grid reliability and establishing a power supply system fit for the future. “We can use AI to automatically log, compress and process up to 4.3 million data sets per day,” says Prof. Peter Bretschneider, head of the Energy department at the AST branch of the Fraunhofer IOSB. In the first phase of their work, the researchers have come up with a compression technique that saves 80 percent of the data. Not only is it easier to store the data, but faster and more efficient to process it too. Automated data processing in real time In the second phase, the researchers went on to utilize the phasor measurement data they had collected to apply neural networks – one of the key components for today’s artificial intelligence. More specifically, they “fed” the neural networks with examples of typical system outages. This way, the algorithms gradually learn to distinguish – and precisely categorize – normal operating data from defined system malfunctions. Following the training phase, the researchers applied the neural networks to current data generated from phasor measurements – data that previously had to be taken and manually processed. This is where the algorithm made its first leap into real-time application, making split-second decisions on where there is an anomaly or fault, as well as the type and location of that disturbance. To take an example, if one power plant should fail, an abrupt spike can be expected in the load placed on the other power plants. The increased load slows down the generators, and the frequency decreases. This calls for rapid countermeasures because if the frequency sinks below a threshold value, the operator may be forced to cut off sections of the grid for the sake of system stability. And by rapid, we are talking about less than 500 milliseconds. Since the algorithm is capable of reaching a decision within 20–50 milliseconds, that leaves sufficient time to implement the appropriate fully automated countermeasures. The algorithm is ready to be implemented, as the researchers continue to work on the control and regulation of the relevant countermeasures. The development is of interest not only to the big operators of power transmission grids, but also to regional distribution grids. “To make an analogy with the road network, what’s the point of having clear motorways when the smaller regional roads are permanently blocked?” says Bretschneider. Power to predict problems of the future All the same, the researchers are not restricting themselves to the problems of today, but also want to factor in anomalies that have not even occurred so far. “If we continue to pursue renewables, it may lead to situations we don’t even know about yet,” says Bretschneider. Here, too, the researchers have turned to artificial intelligence, where they work on categorizing these sorts of unknown phenomena and developing the appropriate algorithms using digital network maps.
▣ CATEGORY OF COMPANIES (NACE Rev.2) 1. Computer programming, consultancy and related activities 2. Information service activities 3. Motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities 4. Programming and broadcasting activities 5. Publishing activities 6. Telecommunications
If you need bolts with a groove for a new design, are suffering from a supply bottleneck or want to purchase spare parts, then a visit to the stand hosted by mbo Osswald GmbH & Co. KG in Hannover would be a good idea. The company is at the fair to show how the mbo Osswald bolt configurator offers a fast and straightforward route to the bolt you need. Whether you're looking for tried-and-tested DIN bolts or bolts with a groove, this tool promises a speedy and user-friendly solution that will meet all your needs. Using the mbo Osswald bolt configurator is a pretty simple task. First, combine the bolt form, material, shaft diameter and retainer version with the required, freely definable length or grip length. The configurator will then automatically calculate the required minimum dimensions at the touch of a button, create the corresponding dimensional drawing and display the price and current delivery time. After that, all you have to do is enter the required quantity and transfer everything to your shopping cart. What's more, adding the relevant retainer type in the required quantity to your cart and placing an order couldn’t be easier - simply check the relevant box. Users can choose between bolts with or without a head in steel and stainless steel. The all-round slot applied to the shaft can be configured for various standard retainer types - locking washer DIN 6799, retaining ring DIN 471, SL-retainer, KL-retainer and bayonet clip.
A healthy adult makes about 2 million blood cells every second, and 99 percent of them are oxygen-carrying red blood cells. The other one percent are platelets and the various white blood cells of the immune system. How all the different kinds of mature blood cells are derived from the same "hematopoietic" stem cells in the bone marrow has been the subject of intense research, but most studies have focused on the one percent, the immune cells. "It's a bit odd, but because red blood cells are enucleated and therefore hard to track by genetic markers, their production has been more or less ignored by the vast number of studies in the past couple of decades," said Camilla Forsberg, professor of biomolecular engineering in the Baskin School of Engineering at UC Santa Cruz. In a new study, published March 21 in Stem Cell Reports, Forsberg's lab overcame technical obstacles to provide a thorough accounting of blood cell production from hematopoietic stem cells. Their findings are important for understanding disorders such as anemia, diseases of the immune system, and blood cancers such as leukemias and lymphomas. "We're trying to understand the balance of production of blood cells and immune cells, which goes wrong in many kinds of disorders," Forsberg said. The process by which hematopoietic stem cells give rise to mature blood cells involves multiple populations of progenitor cells that become progressively more committed to a specific "fate" as they develop into fully mature cells. A major fork in the road is between "lymphoid progenitors," which give rise to white blood cells called lymphocytes, and "myeloid progenitors," which give rise to other kinds of white blood cells, as well as red blood cells and platelets. The majority of cells in the bone marrow are in the myeloid lineage. A key finding of the new study is that all progenitor cells with myeloid potential produce far more red blood cells than any other cell type. This was surprising because many previous studies in which progenitor cells were grown in cell cultures ("in vitro") found they had limited capacity to produce red blood cells and platelets. Forsberg said those results now appear to be an artifact of the culture conditions. "It's been hard to make sense of a lot of those experiments, because we know our bodies need to make a lot of red blood cells and platelets," she said. "Our results show that these progenitor cells retain a lot of red blood cell potential. In fact, we propose that red blood cell production is the default pathway." In experiments led by first author Scott Boyer, a graduate student in Forsberg's lab, researchers transplanted different progenitor cell populations into mice and tracked the production of red blood cells as well as platelets (the second largest component of blood) and immune cells. Boyer was also able to transplant single progenitor cells and then identify the blood and immune cells it produced. By quantifying the numbers of mature blood cells produced from transplanted progenitors, the researchers were able to show that red blood cells were by far the most abundant cell type produced by every type of progenitor cell, with the exception of lymphoid progenitors. Their findings led to the development of a model of hematopoietic differentiation that focuses on red blood cells as the default pathway for all myeloid progenitors. In addition to Forsberg and Boyer, the coauthors of the paper include Smrithi Rajendiran, Anna Beaudin, Stephanie Smith-Berdan, Praveen Muthuswamy, Jessica Perez-Cunningham, Eric Martin, Christa Cheung, Herman Tsang, and Mark Landon, all at the UC Santa Cruz Institute for the Biology of Stem Cells. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine.
Modern lightweight construction often requires the combination of metal with polymers. In addition, efficient process chains are required for use in industrial production bringing pretreatment and joining technology in agreement with the specific load case. Tools for process simulation and property characterization also play an important role. A new Fraunhofer IWS development meets these requirements: The HPCI process combines many years of experience in adhesive bonding with modern technological developments in the laser remote technology field. The researchers thus achieved their self-defined goal of developing productive solutions for direct and form-fit joining. Pre-treatment is important Since thermoplastics and metal have very different physical properties – such as melting temperature or thermal expansion coefficient – optimizing the adhesive force between the two joining partners is of outstanding importance. For this reason, the IWS researchers developed a laser ablation process that generates structure depths of 100 micrometers and more at surface rates of up to 30 square centimeters per second. Remote or scanner optics focus the continuously radiating laser on the metal and quickly deflect it. This process cleans the surface from adhering oils or dirt on the boundary layer. At the same time, the later penetrating polymer can fill the generated structures so that there is a positive fit between polymer and metal. This eliminates the need to clean the surface with solvents or pickling baths. Fast heat provides direct joining The actual joining process is quite simple: the pre-structured metallic joining partner is pressed with the polymer. At the same time, the metal is heated at the joint and the thermoplastic is partially melted. In order to adapt this process for industrial use, IWS scientists developed a modularly designed joining gun that can be mounted on a robot arm instead of a spot welding gun. This allows proven system technology to be used for multi-material applications as well. A particular challenge consists in the uniform heating of the metallic joining partners. In addition to inductive heating, laser heating offers a similarly adequate solution. The use of a two-dimensional laser beam oscillation enables extremely fast beam movement and control. This procedure allows the temperature field to be adjusted dynamically to compensate for the specific heat dissipation conditions of the joined parts. Technological implementation Together with industrial and research partners, Fraunhofer IWS evaluated the developed method using a complex technology demonstrator. The researchers replaced a pure welded construction steel assembly with a multi-material component made of organo sheet and metallic cover plate in order to demonstrate the lightweight construction potential. In addition to thermal direct joining, they also generated form-fit connections in web-slit design between the metal and organo sheet. The basic study showed that thermal direct joining suits multi-material and component designs, in particular due to short process times, robust process control and good automation capability.
▣ CATEGORY OF COMPANIES (NACE Rev.2) Installation of industrial machinery and equipment Repair and installation of machinery and equipment Repair and maintenance of aircraft and spacecraft Repair and maintenance of other transport equipment Repair and maintenance of ships and boats Repair of electrical equipment Repair of electronic and optical equipment Repair of fabricated metal products Repair of fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment Repair of machinery Repair of other equipment
▣ CATEGORY OF COMPANIES (NACE Rev.2) Manufacture of bodies (coachwork) for motor vehicles; manufacture of trailers and semi-trailers Manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment for motor vehicles Manufacture of motor vehicles Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers Manufacture of other parts and accessories for motor vehicles Manufacture of parts and accessories for motor vehicles
▣ CATEGORY OF COMPANIES (NACE Rev.2) Manufacture of agricultural and forestry machinery Manufacture of bearings, gears, gearing and driving elements Manufacture of engines and turbines, except aircraft, vehicle and cycle engines Manufacture of fluid power equipment Manufacture of general-purpose machinery Manufacture of lifting and handling equipment Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c. Manufacture of machinery for food, beverage and tobacco processing Manufacture of machinery for metallurgy Manufacture of machinery for mining, quarrying and construction Manufacture of machinery for paper and paperboard production Manufacture of machinery for textile, apparel and leather production Manufacture of metal forming machinery Manufacture of metal forming machinery and machine tools Manufacture of non-domestic cooling and ventilation equipment Manufacture of office machinery and equipment (except computers and peripheral equipment) Manufacture of other general-purpose machinery Manufacture of other general-purpose machinery n.e.c. Manufacture of other machine tools Manufacture of other pumps and compressors Manufacture of other special-purpose machinery Manufacture of other special-purpose machinery n.e.c. Manufacture of other taps and valves Manufacture of ovens, furnaces and furnace burners Manufacture of plastics and rubber machinery Manufacture of power-driven hand tools
▣ CATEGORY OF COMPANIES (NACE Rev.2) Manufacture of furniture Manufacture of kitchen furniture Manufacture of mattresses Manufacture of office and shop furniture Manufacture of other furniture
▣ CATEGORY OF COMPANIES (NACE Rev.2) Manufacture of bakery and farinaceous products Manufacture of bread; manufacture of fresh pastry goods and cakes Manufacture of cocoa, chocolate and sugar confectionery Manufacture of condiments and seasonings Manufacture of food products Manufacture of fruit and vegetable juice Manufacture of grain mill products Manufacture of grain mill products, starches and starch products Manufacture of homogenised food preparations and dietetic food Manufacture of ice cream Manufacture of macaroni, noodles, couscous and similar farinaceous products Manufacture of oils and fats Manufacture of other food products Manufacture of other food products n.e.c. Manufacture of prepared animal feeds Manufacture of prepared feeds for farm animals Manufacture of prepared meals and dishes Manufacture of prepared pet foods Manufacture of rusks and biscuits; manufacture of preserved pastry goods and cakes Manufacture of starches and starch products Manufacture of sugar Operation of dairies and cheese making Other processing and preserving of fruit and vegetables Processing and preserving of fish, crustaceans and molluscs Processing and preserving of meat Processing and preserving of meat and production of meat products Processing and preserving of potatoes Processing and preserving of poultry meat Processing of tea and coffee Production of meat and poultry meat products